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  • br Appendix A Supplementary data br References br A Scarpa


    Appendix A. Supplementary data
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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Gene Reports
    journal homepage:
    APOA1 AND APOA2 proteins as prognostic markers for early detection of T urinary MDMB-CHMCZCA cancer
    Hosni Salema, Doha El-Sayed Ellakwab, , Hanan Fouadc, Mona Abdel Hamidd
    a Department of Urosurgery, Kasr Al Ainy School of medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    b Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University - Cairo.Egypt
    c Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt c Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University- Cairo. Egypt
    Bladder cancer
    Western blot technique 
    Studying the urine proteome is one of the most promising diagnostic biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer patients. The aim of the present study is to assess blood and urinary protein expression levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 in bladder cancer patients. The expression of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 levels with tumor stage and grade was also assessed. The study was conducted on 50 patients with carcinoma of urinary bladder, 50 patients with cystitis and 50 normal healthy subjects. Protein expression levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 were assessed by western blot technique. Results showed that levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 in voided urine were significantly elevated in the malignant group in comparison to benign and healthy control groups. Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Urinary levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 are not correlated to their corresponding blood levels which showed no significant difference between the malignant group and the control group. There was no significant correlation between Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 levels with any of the clinical or pathological data of the disease. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that ApoA1 and ApoA2 urinary protein levels could be used as a non-invasive highly sensitive diagnostic and screening biomarker for bladder cancer.
    1. Introduction
    Bladder cancer became a common cancer ranks as the ninth major frequently-diagnosed malignancy globally (Mahdavifar et al., 2016). For the vast majority frequency rates observed in men is found in Western Europe, North America, likewise on specific countries in Northern Africa or Western Asia (Khattab et al., 2015). The highest incidence rate of bladder cancer is recorded in Egypt (37.1 per 100,000 males) (Hammam et al., 2015). According to National Cancer Institute in Egypt, urinary bladder tumor constitutes 30% of all cancer cases with an incidence rate of 13.5/100,000 individuals (Mohamed et al., 2017). The present standard for identification of bladder tumor depends with respect to cystoscopy, an invasive procedure, furthermore cytology (Ellakwa et al., 2016). Cytology has a high specificity, but low sensi-tivity in identification of low-grade tumors, as well as requires a well-prepared pathologist for review (Fouad et al., 2019). As a result current
    diagnostic tools are less than optimal and because bladder cancer has a high rate of recurrence and long term following is a necessity, a better diagnostic device is necessary (Onile et al., 2017). Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo-A1) is the major protein part of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It is synthesized mostly in the liver and small digestive tract. Likewise affirmed by several studies, Apo-A1 suppresses inflammation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis (Mangaraj et al., 2016). Studies have discovered that Apo-A1 is a potential biomarker for nu-merous types of cancer including breast furthermore pancreatic carci-nomas (Cine et al., 2014). It is usually thought that the role of the Apo-A1 molecule over malignancy pathophysiology may be connected with the phospholipid binding ability. Lysophospholipids, in particular, have been demonstrated to play a basic role in the improvement for malig-nancy and what's more bring been accounted to be major biomarkers for cancerous diseases (Lv et al., 2011). Apolipoprotein A2 (Apo-A2) is the second major protein of the HDL-C particles and comprises about